ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROCLIMATE RESPONSES TO
STRENGTHENING OF THE HADLEY CIRCULATION IN SOUTH AMERICA DURING THE LATE MIOCENE COOLING
This paper analyzes the Late Miocene continental record of hydroclimate from the central Andes and subsequent ecologi-cal response to climatic change during this interval. The Late Miocene cooling (LMC) is characterized by a sharp decrease (up to 6 °C) of sea-surface temperatures and has been shown to have driven ecosystem reorganization, leading to conditions similar to Quaternary. We use the stable isotopic record pre-served in pedogenic carbonate nodules as a proxy for hydro-climate changes during the LMC. This, combined with general circulation simulations, shows that strengthening of the Hadley circulation in South America during the LMC enhanced sub-tropical aridification and in turn promoted expansion of C4 grasses and evolution of high-crowned teeth in mammals.
EARLY INCEPTION OF THE LARAMIDE OROGENY IN SOUTHWESTERN
MONTANA AND NORTHERN WYOMING: IMPLICATIONS
FOR MODELS OF FLAT‐SLAB SUBDUCTION
2019 JGR 10.1029/2018JB016888
Timing and distribution of magmatism, deformation, exhumation, and basin development
have been used to reconstruct the history of Laramide flat‐slab subduction under North America during
Late Cretaceous‐early Cenozoic time. Existing geodynamic models, however, ignore a large (~40,000‐km2)
sector of the Laramide foreland in southwestern Montana. The Montana Laramide ranges consist of
Archean basement arches (fault‐propagation folds) that were elevated by thrust and reverse faults. We
present new thermochronological and geochronological data from six Laramide ranges in southwestern
Montana (the Beartooth, Gravelly, Ruby and Madison Ranges, and the Tobacco Root and Highland
Mountains) that show significant cooling and exhumation during the Early to mid‐Cretaceous, much earlier
than the record of Laramide exhumation in Wyoming. These data suggest that Laramide‐style
deformation‐driven exhumation slightly predates the eastward sweep of magmatism in western Montana,
consistent with geodynamic models involving initial strain propagation into North American cratonic rocks
due to stresses associated with a northeastward expanding region of flat‐slab subduction. Our results also
indicate various degrees of Cenozoic heating and cooling possibly associated with westward rollback of the
subducting Farallon slab, followed by Basin‐and‐Range extension.
THE TAJIK BASIN: A COMPOSITE RECORD OF SEDIMENTARY BASIN EVOLUTION IN RESPONSE TO TECTONICS IN THE PAMIR
2019 Basin Research
Investigation of a >6‐km‐thick succession of Cretaceous to Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Tajik Basin reveals that this depocentre consists of three stacked basin systems that are interpreted to reflect different mechanisms of subsidence associated with tectonics in the Pamir Mountains: a Lower to mid‐Cretaceous succession, an Upper Cretaceous–Lower Eocene succession and an Eocene–Neogene succession. The Lower to mid‐Cretaceous succession consists of fluvial deposits that were primarily derived from the Triassic Karakul–Mazar subduction–accretion complex in the northern Pamir. This succession is characterized by a convex‐up (accelerating) subsidence curve, thickens towards the Pamir and is interpreted as a retroarc foreland basin system associated with northward subduction of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. The Upper Cretaceous to early Eocene succession consists of fine‐grained, marginal marine and sabkha deposits. The succession is characterized by a concave‐up subsidence curve. Regionally extensive limestone beds in the succession are consistent with late stage thermal relaxation and relative sea‐level rise following lithospheric extension, potentially in response to Tethyan slab rollback/foundering. The Upper Cretaceous–early Eocene succession is capped by a middle Eocene to early Oligocene (ca. 50–30 Ma) disconformity, which is interpreted to record the passage of a flexural forebulge. The disconformity is represented by a depositional hiatus, which is 10–30 Myr younger than estimates for the initiation of India–Asia collision and overlaps in age with the start of prograde metamorphism recorded in the Pamir gneiss domes. Overlying the disconformity, a >4‐km‐thick upper Eocene–Neogene succession displays a classic, coarsening upward unroofing sequence characterized by accelerating subsidence, which is interpreted as a retro‐foreland basin associated with crustal thickening of the Pamir during India–Asia collision. Thus, the Tajik Basin provides an example of a long‐lived composite basin in a retrowedge position that displays a sensitivity to plate margin processes. Subsidence, sediment accumulation and basin‐forming mechanisms are influenced by subduction dynamics, including periods of slab‐shallowing and retreat.
PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
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(79) Carrapa, B., Clementz, M., Feng, R. (2019), Ecological and hydroclimate responses to strengthening of the Hadley circulation on the South American continent during the LMC, PNAS, 116 (20) 9747-9752.
(78) Carrapa, B., DeCelles, P.G., *Romero, M. C. (2019), Early Inception of the Laramide Orogeny in Southwestern Montana and Northern Wyoming: Implications for Models of Flat‐Slab Subduction, Journal of Geophysical Research,
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(43) Carrapa, B., Huntington, K.H., Clementz, M., Bywater -Reyes, S., Quade, J., Schoenbohm, L. and Canavan, R. (2014), Uplift of the Central Andes of NW Argentina associated with upper crustal shortening, revealed by multi-proxy isotopic analyses, Tectonics, doi: 10.1002/2013TC003461.
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(35) Peyton, L.S., and Carrapa, B. (2013), An overview of low-temperature thermochronology in the Rocky Mountain and Its application to petroleum system analysis, in C. Knight and J. Cuzella, eds., Application of structural methods to Rocky Mountain hydrocarbon exploration and development, AAPG Studies in Geology, v. 65, p. 37–70.
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(15) DeCelles, P.G., Carrapa, B. and Gehrels, G.E. (2007), Detrital Zircon U-Pb Ages Provide New Provenance and Chronostratigraphic Information from Eocene Synorogenic Deposits in Northwestern Argentina, Geology, v. 35, 323-326.
(14) Mortimer, E., Carrapa, B., Coutand, I., Schoenbohm, Sobel, E., Gomez, J.S., Strecker,
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(13) Strecker, M.R., Alonso, R.N, Bookhagen, B., Carrapa, B., Hilley, G.E., Sobel, E.R., Trauth, M.H. (2007), Tectonics and Climate of the Southern Central Andes, Annual Review Earth Planetary Sciences, v. 35, 747-787.
(12) Alonso, R.N., Carrapa, B., Coutand, I., Haschke, M., Hilley, G.E., Schoenbohm, L., Sobel, E. R., Strecker, M.R., Trauth, M.H. (2007) Tectonics, climate, and landscape evolution of the southern Central Andes: The Argentine Puna Plateau and adjacent Regions between 22º and 28ºS lat. in Oncken, O., Chong, G., Franz, G., Giese, P., Götze, H.-J., Ramos, V., Strecker, M., and Wigger, P., editors, The Andes - Active Subduction Orogeny: Frontiers in Earth Sciences, Springer Verlag, Monograph Series 1, 265-283.
(11) Carrapa, B., Sobel, E.R. and Strecker, M.R. (2006), Orogenic Plateau growth in the Central Andes: Evidence from sedimentary rock provenance and apatite fission track thermochronology in the Fiambala Basin, southernmost Puna Plateau margin (NW Argentina), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 247, 82-100.
(10) Coutand, I., Carrapa, B., Deeken, A., Schmitt, A.K., Sobel. E.R., Strecker, M.R. (2006), Orogenic plateau formation and lateral growth of compressional basins and ranges: insights from sandstone petrography and detrital apatite fission-track thermochronology in the Angastaco Basin, NW Argentina, Basin Research, v. 18, 1–26.
(9) Carrapa, B., Adelmann, D., Hilley, G., Mortimer, E., Strecker, M.R. and Sobel, E.R. (2005), Oligocene uplift, establishment of internal drainage and development of plateau morphology in the southern Central Andes, Tectonics, v. 24, doi:10.1029/2004TC001762.
(8) Carrapa, B. and Garcia Castellanos, D. (2005), Western Alpine back-thrusting as subsidence mechanism in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy), Tectonophysics, v. 406, 197-212.
(7) Carrapa, B., Wijbrans, J., Bertotti, G. (2004) Detecting differences in cooling/exhumation pattern within the Western Alpine arc through 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology on detrital minerals (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy), in Detrital thermochronology-Provenance analysis, exhumation and landscape evolution of mountain belts, Eds. Bernet M. & Spiegel, Geological Society of America, 378, chapter 5.
(6) Carrapa, B., Di Giulio, A. and Wijbrans, J. (2004), The early stages of the Alpine collision: an image from the detrital thermochronology of Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene sediments in the Alps-Apennines knot area, Sedimentary Geology, v. 171, 181-203.
(5) Barbieri, C., Carrapa, B., Di Giulio, A., Wijbrans, J. and Murrell, G. (2003), Provenance of Oligocene syn-orogenic sediments of the Ligurian Alps (NW Italy): inferences on the belt age and its cooling history, International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 92, 758-778.
(4) Carrapa, B., Bertotti, G. and Krijgsma, W. (2003) Subsidence, stress regime and rotation(s) of a tectonically active sedimentary basin within the Western Alps: the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Alpine domain, Northwest Italy), in Tracing Tectonic deformation using the Sedimentary Record, Eds. T. McCann & A. Saintot, Geological Society of London, 208, 205-227.
(3) Carrapa, B., Wijbrans, J. and Bertotti, G. (2003), Episodic exhumation in the Western Alps,
Geology, v. 31, 601-604.
(2) Di Giulio, A., Carrapa, B., Fantoni, R., Gorla, L. & Valdisturlo, A. (2001), Middle Eocene-to Early Miocene sedimentary evolution of the western-Lombardian segment of the South-Alpine foredeep (Italy), International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 90, 534-548.
(1) Carrapa, B., Di Giulio, B. (2001), The Sedimentary record of the exhumation of a granitic intrusion into a collisional setting: a case study from Southern Alps (Gonfolite Group, Italy), Sedimentary Geology, v. 139, 217-228.
Ph.D. Dissertation: Tectonic evolution of an active orogen as reflected by its sedimentary record, an integrated study of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Internal Western Alps, NW Italy), Ph.D. Thesis, ISBN 90-9016220-8, 2003, Amsterdam, 177 pp. Advisers: Jan Wijbrans (primary), Giovanni Bertotti, Sierd Cloetingh, Paul Andriessen.
M.S. Dissertation: The Gonfolite Lombarda (south Alpine foreland basin) in the Como area; petrographic-sedimentological study of the Como Conglomerates and the Val Grande Sandstones, M.S. Thesis, 1998, Earth Science Department, University of Pavia, 222 pp. Adviser: Andrea DiGiulio.
(2) Carrapa, B. and Wijbrans, J. (2003), Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar detrital mica ages in Tertiary sediments shed a new light on the Eo-Alpine evolution, Journal of the Virtual Explorer, v. 13, 43- 55.
(1) Carrapa, B. (2010), Detrital dating: a powerful approach to resolve tectonics and erosion, invited review article in Outcrop, Newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, November issue.